The most differential genes in each pairwise comparison were retrieved and a single list of differential genes was generated.The latter analysis was then used for the identication of specic clusters that displayed a differential expression between the studied cohorts.Boxplot representations of the expression value per each analyzed population were retrieved.The brain was removed from the skull, the cortex was dissected out and set on a glass slide for observation.Two independent investigators blinded to the genotype of the mice manually counted the number of anastomoses between the middle and the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries.For measurements designed as proof of concept, validation, or as internal controls we used minimum reasonable numbers of animals for conrmatory purposes.The specic tests used in each experiment,pvalues, andnvalues are stated in Figure Legends. Cell Reports, October, e Gold electrode surface has been chemically modified by electrochemical reduction of diazonium salt with carboxylic acid outward from the surface.This was used for aminomodified cadmium aptamer immobilization through carbodiimide reaction.Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal whose presence in the environment is mainly issued from human activities. It is produced in the manufacture of batteries and pigments which can permeate, soil and water supply.Indeed, it has been reported that exposure to this ion plays a particular role in prostate cancer. Despite their performance, most of these methods are often tedious, time consuming and require great amounts of solvents, reagents and sophisticated apparatus.Therefore, inexpensive, sensitive and selective techniques are very desirable for cadmium monitoring.Biosensors are considered as very promising tools for sensitive, rapid and low cost monitoring of wide range of analytes in different fields of applications.A wide range of biomolecules or chemical species have been used in the literature as sensitive layer for chemical or biosensors manufacturing. Aptamers are considered as bioinspired receptors which have gained great interest since their discovery in. Due to their unique conformations, aptamers can bind a wide range of targets such as small molecules, proteins, and even whole cells.Their advantageous characteristics, such as high stability, simple chemical synthesis, possibility of modification, made them strong competitors of antibodies in molecular analysis. They constitute thus good candidates as effective probes for chemical sensors.Hamid et al have developed an electrochemical cadmium sensor using a DNA aptamer, where the sensing mechanism was based on target bindinginduced conformational change.Here, magnetic beads were used as immobilization support for the aptamer.The critical point in aptasensor fabrication technology remains in the immobilization of active biomolecules onto the transducer surface.Several immobilization techniques can be adopted according to the biomolecules architecture and the desired application.For instance, direct buy Rivastigmine attachment of bioreceptors to gold electrodes has been reported, by using or thiollabelled aptamers selfassembly through gold sulfur bond interaction by forming ordered singlecarrier membrane. However, this technique suffers from nonspecific adsorption and cannot be applied on other materials.Attachment of aptamers onto sensor surfaces based on hybridization with partially complementary oligonucleotides has been also adopted. Nevertheless, annealing and hybridization steps are required, enduring thus the experimental conditions.Covalent attachment to chemicallymodified sensor surfaces is a promising method based on the interaction of a labelling group and a chemically functionalized surface resulting in a layer of ordered film of aptamers.